The series of contagious currency crises in the 1990s—in Mexico, Brazil, East Asia, and Argentina—again focused policy makers’ minds on the problems of the international monetary system. Moves, albeit limited, were made toward a new international financial architecture. Most importantly, these crises led to the establishment of the Financial Stability Forum (since 2009 the Financial Stability Board), which investigated the problems of offshore, capital flows, and hedge funds; and the G20, which attempted to broaden the international regime’s membership and thus deepen its legitimacy. In addition, there were calls for a currency transaction tax, named after Nobel Laureate James Tobin’s proposal, from many civil society nongovernmental organizations as well as some governments. The success of international monetary reform is a crucial issue for governments and their autonomy, firms and the stability of their investments, and citizens who ultimately are those who absorb these effects as they are transmitted into everyday life.

When it comes to exchange rates, or any other financial instrument that is traded in an exchange, we should expect a reaction to any sort of data surprise, either positive or negative. If no surprises are recorded, then we would expect no change in the exchange rate. The idea is that experts aim to provide a forecast on the future values of important variables...


For trading purposes, the first currency listed in the pair is always the directional currency on a forex price chart. If you pull up a chart of the EUR/USD, and the price is moving higher, it means the EUR is moving higher relative to the USD. If the price on the chart is falling, then the EUR is declining in value relative to the USD. The attached chart shows this. 
One unique aspect of this international market is that there is no central marketplace for foreign exchange. Rather, currency trading is conducted electronically over-the-counter (OTC), which means that all transactions occur via computer networks between traders around the world, rather than on one centralized exchange. The market is open 24 hours a day, five and a half days a week, and currencies are traded worldwide in the major financial centers of London, New York, Tokyo, Zurich, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Singapore, Paris and Sydney - across almost every time zone. This means that when the trading day in the U.S. ends, the forex market begins anew in Tokyo and Hong Kong. As such, the forex market can be extremely active any time of the day, with price quotes changing constantly.
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